The insider is still one of the most vulnerable elements of cybersecurity and it was the discussion of the recent Modern Workplace webcast on cyber intelligence and the human element. Insiders are those who are authorized to work on company systems or in company facilities and they include trusted employees and contractors. Whether it is through human error, social engineering, or intentional action, insiders are the cause of a significant portion of malware infections, data breaches, information theft, and privacy violations.
There are some key strategies you can use to safeguard against the insider threat. First, technical controls can reduce the burden placed on insiders or minimize the potential damage done by insiders. However, the insider threat cannot be solved entirely by implementing more technical controls. No, human behavior is far different from a computer system and cannot be changed with by flipping a switch or changing a bit. Companies need effective security leadership, security awareness training, and assessments and metrics.
Technical controls need to be implemented in such a way that they make it easy for users to do their job, while still remaining secure. Systems that become too difficult to use when security controls are applied are the systems that will see less use as employees find workarounds. For example, a company may implement more stringent password policies and change intervals only to find that users are storing the passwords unencrypted in phones, memo pads, or on the calendar at their desk.
Not implementing technical controls can have the same effect. A company without adequate spam filtering could see users utilizing personal cloud email accounts for company email to avoid having to sift through mass amounts of spam.
Leaders should set an example for other employees and their subordinates by following secure computing practices. They can also set an example by choosing where to spend money. Information security needs to have an adequate budget and spending should be consistent and proactive rather than spike immediately following a security incident. In the Modern Workplace webcast on cyber intelligence and the human element, Phil Ferraro, Nielsen CISO, said that it is essential for business leaders to understand that cyber risk is business risk. This is more than an IT problem.
Awareness training is essential for teaching employees how to do their jobs safely. Almost everyone uses a computer on the job and this means that they are interacting with organizational apps and data. End users need to understand how to recognize phishing messages, including targeted spear phishing messages, as well as other social engineering schemes such as fake social media accounts, unsafe instant messages and text messages, or deceptive phone calls and voice mails.
People need regular reminders in order for information to stay top of mind. It is not enough to conduct training once a year. Training should be augmented with emails that inform users of new techniques and attacks or remind them of what they learned in training. Posters and signs can also help employees remember their training.
Assessment and metrics
Follow-up security awareness training with assessments such as online quizzes or questionnaires. You may also consider conducting social engineering penetration testing by phishing your own users. These assessments can help identify those that still make mistakes or do not fully understand the material so that you can focus additional training on those users.
It is also helpful to establish meaningful metrics on security performance. Report on these metrics in company meetings so that employees know that it is important to the organization. Use security metrics in employee reviews and reward employees and groups when security goals are met.
Special thanks to Microsoft Office, the sponsor of this article. As always, all thoughts and opinions are my own.